1473-1543 Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus
Astronomers (astrologers) Polish nationals named Nicolaus Copernicus (His Polandian name: Mikolaj Kopernik), born 1473 in Torun city on the banks of the Vistula river, Poland. He came from a wealthy family. As a very young child, Copernicus studied at the University of Cracow, as the students who put great interest in the affairs astrology. In his twenties he went to Italy, studying medicine and law at the University of Bologna and Padua and later received a doctorate in canon law from the University of Ferrara. Copernicus spent most of his adult when the staff of the cathedral in Frauenburg (Polish: Frombork), as the true canon law expert Copernicus was never a professional astronomer, the amount of work that sets his name thanks to the sky-is just a sideline. 

During his stay in Italy, Copernicus already acquainted with the ideas of the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos (13th century BC). These philosophers argue that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun. Copernicus became convinced of the truth of the hypothesis "heliocentric" is, and when he was about forty years of age he began to circulate among his friends in the form of concise literature, put forward his own ideas on the origin of the problem. Copernicus takes years of observation, careful calculations necessary for preparation of the big book De Revolutionibus orbium coelestium (About Revolution Rounded Celestial Bodies), which describes in detail and put forward his theory of proof-proof. 

In the year 1533, when the age of sixty years, Copernicus send file records lectures in Rome. In which he presented the basic principles of the theory without causing disapproval Pope. When the new age is approaching seven decades, Copernicus decided publishing his book, and a new right at the death when he sent his first printed book from the publisher. It is dated May 24, 1543. 

In the book of Copernicus rightly said that the earth rotates on its axis, that the moon revolves around the sun and the earth, as well as all the other planets revolved around the sun. But, like his predecessors, he made ​​a haphazard calculations regarding planetary scale circulation around the sun. Also, he made ​​a big mistake, because he believes that the orbits consist of circles. So, not only is complicated mathematical theory, but also not true. Even so, the book quickly received great attention. Other astronomers were intrigued, especially the Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe, who conduct more thorough and precise observations of the planetary movements. Of data observations is this which makes the Johannes Kepler finally able to formulate laws of planetary motion. 

Copernican system of the universe 

Although Aristarchus more than seventeen centuries before Copernicus had argued the issues concerning the circulation hypothesis celestial objects, is considered worthy of the award-winning Copernicuslah large. Because, no matter how Aristarchus has put forward various issues containing inspiration, but he never formulated a fairly detailed theory that has the benefits of scientific spectacles. When Copernicus worked out the mathematics of the hypothesis in detail, he managed to turn it into a scientific theory that has meaning and order. Can be used for prediction, that can be proved by astronomical observations, can be useful in other appeals older theory that the earth was the center of the universe. 

It is clear that Copernicus's theory has revolutionized our conception of space and at the same time has revolutionized our philosophical outlook. However, in terms of evaluating the importance of Copernicus, it must be remembered that astronomy does not have great range of practical everyday use such as physics, chemistry and biology. In principle, one could construct such devices as televisions, cars, or modern chemical plant without a little necessarily was using the theory of Copernicus. (Instead, people are not going to can make the objects without applying the ideas of Faraday, Maxwell, Lavosier or Newton). 

However, if we simply direct attention solely to the direct influence of Copernicus in the field of technology, we will miss the real significance of Copernicus. Book Copenicus seemingly allows both Galileo and Kepler completed his scientific work. All of them are important predecessors and determine for Newton, and their discoveries that raise a possibility Newton formulated the laws of motion and gravity. Historically, the publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium was the starting point of modern astronomy. More than that, is the starting point of modern knowledge.