1483-1546 Martin Luther
Martin Luther, the defiance against the Roman Catholic Church and gave birth to the Protestant reform movement was born in 1483 in the town of Eisleben, Germany. He obtained a college education is quite good and at one time had studied the law (apparently at the instigation of his father). But, overall he never completed a formal education but choose your own Augustinian priest. In 1512 he was awarded a PhD in theology from the University of Wittenberg and soon after it plunged active in the department faculty.
Dissatisfaction and complaints Martin Luther against the Roman Catholic Church raised the level by level. In 1510 he visited to Rome. At that point he was stunned to witness the unbelievable shock worldly extravagance and luxury of the clergy of the Catholic Church. However, most pushed protested the church is primarily in terms of the act relating to the issue of forgiveness of sins committed by the church. On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther sticking posters on the gates of Wittenberg church that contains the "ninety-five basic attitudes" are among the luxuries of life confront the church in general and tell oppression "ninety-five basic attitude of" it was the Bishop of Mainz. In addition, also printed and widely distributed everywhere.
The scope of the Martin Luther protested against the Roman Catholic Church spread with incredible speed and widespread. Luther stepped up their attacks into the heart of the problem is correct: deny the authority of the Pope, the Church Council. Martin Luther insists he is only subject to the guidance of the Gospel and the common sense reasons. It is understandable, the church was not happy with Luther's opinion. Luther was ordered to come to the magistrates of the church and each other after hearing and argument as well as a requirement that the Martin Luther threw his opinion, he finally declared "apostates" and found guilty and ostracized by the trial board (1521) and all of his writings is expressly prohibited and not can be accounted for.
Should --according to habit-- Martin Luther should be burned down to charcoal as well as people who burn straw. However, Luther's views is widespread and affects a small proportion of Germans and German nobles. Although Martin Luther must also go hide for a year, support for him is so strong that he could be released from criminal penalties that happened.
Martin Luther was a prolific writer and famous and had a wide influence. One of the magnitude of work was to translate the Gospel into the German language. It --of course-- open the door for any literate person to learn the gospel itself without necessarily through the intermediary of the church or pastor. (Incidentally, the translation is so beautiful and perfect spread effect on their language and Germany literature).
Luther's theology --of course-- impossible described here can be summarized in a limited space. One of the key ideas is the doctrine of the necessity of faith in trust solely, an idea based on the writings of St. Paul. Luther believes, humans according destiny be bleak because of his sins and solely through actions and work better alone can save him from eternal damnation. Salvation only comes through trust and with the blessing of God's forgiveness. Therefore, according to Luther, it is clear that the act of forgiveness is the church selling out of place and useless. With so once meant, traditional opinion rusty intermediaries who think that the church can not be removed between a Christian with God is actually something that is misguided. If one adheres to the doctrine of Martin Luther, it means the right to life of the Roman Catholic Church wiped out in one hit.
Moreover, in terms of questioning the essential role of the church, Luther also protested against the beliefs and practices of various kinds of special worship. For example, he rejects the existence of purgatory (after death where the circumstances require purification of the spirit through torture while), and he rejected the necessity of celibacy for a priest. He himself in 1525 to marry a former nun, had six children. Luther died in Eisleben in 1546 when was on his way to visit his hometown.
Martin Luther, of course, is not the first Protestant thinker. A century earlier he already preceded by Jan Hus of Bohemia, and in the 14th century British scholar John Wycliffe, even in the 12th century a Frenchman named Peter Waldo can be considered a first Protestant. However, the influence of Martin Luther's predecessors in power movement has only a local cover. In 1517, dissatisfaction with the Catholic church has penetrated everywhere. Martin Luther's utterances have a serial flames spread to most of Europe. Luther because it has an undeniable right that he is the one who is responsible for the renewal of the incendiary blast of dynamite.
The most obvious consequence of this renewal movement --of course-- formation of various Protestant sects. Although Protestant is only part of Christianity as a whole, and it is not the biggest part, but nonetheless adherents beyond the number of Buddhists generally even compared with other religions.
An important consequence of this renewal movement is spreading breadth of armed religious clashes that soon followed. Some examples of religious wars (eg the Thirty Years War in Germany that began in 1618 and ended in 1648) is truly a bloody war that claimed many victims. Even apart from the clash of arms, the political conflict between Catholic and Protestant plays an important role in the political arena of Europe over the next few centuries.
Updates also plays a complicated but important in the intellectual development of Europe. Prior to 1517 there was only one church, the Roman Catholic Church and each of dissidents and others who have an opinion immediately branded "apostates." Accused climate play like that just do not give erratic freshness for freedom of thought. After renewal because various countries have accepted the principles of freedom of thought in religion, by itself gives a sense of security in the matter of speculation against various kinds of problems.
There is also another notable influence, most of the figures included in the list in this book are from the UK, exceeding the figures from other countries. Germany followed after Britain. It may be said, the list of characters is very evident dominated by those from both the Protestant countries of Northern Europe and America. If we examine, only two people on the list (Gutenberg and Charlemagne) lived before the year 1517, Prior to that, most of the people listed in this book comes from another world and the people who live in the land that is now known to Protestant country comparatively meager contributed greatly to the cultural and human history. It indicates how bright the Protestant movement or Renewal movement is responsible for the fact how many famous people from this area in a period of 450 years. Perhaps the development of intellectual freedom in the region is a major factor.
Luther was not entirely free from errors. Though he was a rebel against religious authority, he could be very short-sighted and not gracefully against those who have a different opinion to him in religious matters. It could be short-sighted attitude and not gracefully Luther's religious wars in Germany resulted in a much more fierce and bloody than for example in the UK. After all, Martin Luther gravity shockingly anti-Jewish, and his writings were very outrageous and chromo hit against Jews is likely pave the way for Hitler's encouragement to do the atrocities in the 20th century.
Luther has often stressed the need for adherence to the legitimate power of civil government. Most likely, the background is principally due to his opposition to the interference of the church to the civil administration. (Do not forget, Renewal movement is not merely a theological strife, To a certain extent he is also a German Nationalist uprising against the Roman influence, therefore it is worth when some movement gained huge support from some of the German princes). Regardless of the intentions of Luther, his statement above pushing the German Protestants accept absolute attitude in matters concerning politics. And in a way it is also the writings of Martin Luther to have cleared the way for the reign of Hitler.
There may be some people wondering, what Martin Luther because they had no place higher in this list. The main reason, though Luther looks have important meaning for Europeans and Americans, he does not have a significant meaning for the people in Asia and Africa because relatively few who embrace Christianity. As far as the people of China, Japan or India, the difference between Catholics and Protestants does not have significance for them. (Something similar happened to the Europeans who are not so interested in the differences between the Sunnis and the Shiites in Islam).
The second reason, Luther if weighed-weigh, a new historical figure, because it's a range of his influence in the history of humanity. not for Muhammad, Buddha; or Moses. Furthermore, in the recent centuries the religious beliefs of the decline in the West, and the influence of religion on the human problems within the next 2000 years it seems smaller than the thousands of years that passed. If the power continuous decline of religious influence, Martin Luther seems will appear more reduced again the importance in the history of humanity than is obtained now.
Finally, remember that we are worthy of religious strife in centuries 16th and 17th actually not --In long-- term impact to the lives of many people as well as advances in science that occurred during the same time. Indeed, the main reason for what causes Luther placed over the top in the main list of Copernicus (who lived contemporary with it) is because Luther had played a greater role in the individual rather than the Protestant Reform movement Copernican revolution in science.