1564-1642 Galileo Galilei
This great Italian scientist may be responsible for the development of the scientific method of anyone else. Galileo was born in Pisa, in 1564. young While studying at the University of Pisa but stalled because of financial affairs. Even so in 1589 he was able to be a teaching position at the university. A few years later he joined the University of Padua and lived there until the year 1610 In this period he created piles of scientific discoveries.
His first important contribution in the field of mechanics. Aristotle taught, heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects, and generations of intellectuals swallow large Greek philosopher opinion this effect. However, Galileo decided to try first whether or not, and through a series of experiments he concluded that Aristotle was wrong. The truth is, both heavy and light objects fall at the same speed except to the extent they decelerates due to a shift in the air. (Incidentally, the habit of throwing objects Galileo conducted experiments from the tower of Pisa apparently unknowingly).
Knowing this, Galileo take further steps. Carefully he measured the distance of objects fall at the appointed time and got evidence that the distance traveled by a falling object is inversely by the square of the number of seconds the fall of objects. This discovery (which means uniform acceleration) has a significance of its own. Even more importantly Galileo capable of collecting his findings with mathematical formulas. Extensive use of mathematical formulas and mathematical methods are important properties of modern science.
Galileo's other major contribution was his discovery of the law of inertia. Earlier, people believed that things move by itself tends to become more and more slowly and completely stop if only there is no power which adds strength to keep moving. But Galileo's experiments prove that the assumption was wrong. When the power to slow down, such as shifting, can be eliminated, moving objects tend to keep moving indefinitely. This is an important principle that has been repeatedly affirmed by Newton and coupled with the legal system itself as one of the first motion of the vital principle in science.
Leaning Tower of Pisa is considered used by Galileo to demonstrate the laws of the fall of some object
Galileo's discovery of the most famous is in the field of astronomy. The theory of astrology in the early 1600s are in an uncertain situation. There is difference of opinion between the adherents of the Copernican theory that the sun-centric and theorists longer, the earth-centric. Around the year 1609 Galileo expressed his belief that Copernicus was in the right, but this time he did not know how to prove it. In 1609, Galileo discovered the telescope heard that people in the Netherlands. Although Galileo had only heard vague about the equipment, but thanks to his genius he was able to create his own telescope. With this new tool he turned his attention to the sky and just within a year he had managed to raise a series of major discoveries.
He saw in it not flat but lumpy, full of craters and mountains. Heavenly bodies, the conclusion, not flat and smooth but irregular as well as the face of the earth. She looked at the Milky Way and it seemed to her that she was not the sort of fog at all but rather consists of a large number of stars with the naked eye is as mixed and mingle with each other.
Then his eye planets like Saturn and behold him circled bracelet. Jupiter glanced telescope and he knew there were four months circling the planet. Here the light-benderanglah him that celestial objects can be rotated around a planet other than Earth. Preoccupation worsen: staring at the sun, and it seemed to her there were spots in his face. Indeed there are other people who also see the previous spots, but Galileo published his findings in a more effective and put the trouble spots to the attention of the world's solar science. Furthermore, research turned to the planet Venus which has a similar term with the correct month period. This is an important part of the evidence that confirmed the theory of Copernicus that the Earth and all other planets revolve around the sun.
Illustration of the law of the lever Galileo Galileo learned from the book 'Mathematical Discussion and Demonstration'
The discovery of the telescope and Galileo series this discovery throws up the ladder of fame. Meanwhile, his support of the Copernican theory led to him face to face with the church who oppose it out. Conflicts of this church reached its peak in 1616: he was ordered to refrain from spreading hypothesis of Copernicus. Galileo was squashed with this restriction for years. Only after the Pope died in 1623, he was replaced by someone who admired Galileo. The following year, the new Pope --Urban VIII-- foreshadowed even vaguely that the prohibition is no longer forced Galileo made.
Six years later Galileo spent time preparing important scientific work Dialogue of Two Important Systems of the World. This book is a great demonstration of the things that may include support for the Copernican theory, and this book was published in 1632 with special permission from the church sensors. Even so, the rulers of the church responded with the attitude and irate when Galileo published book directly dragged into the face of Islamic Court in Rome on charges of violating a ban in 1616.
But clearly, many dignitaries of the church are not happy with the decision to punish a prominent scholars. Even under church law at the time, questioned the Galileo case and sentenced him only lightly. Galileo was not thrown into jail but just hit house arrest in his own home is quite good in a villa in Arcetri. In theory he should not receive guests, but in fact, that rule is not being implemented properly. Another penalty against him that he is just a permintaarn publicly retracted his opinion that the earth revolves around the sun. The 69-year-old scientist execute in open court. (There is a famous story that is not necessarily true that after Galileo interesting opinion he looked down into the earth and whispered softly, "Look, he's still moving!"). In the city he wrote Arcetri he continued working in the field of mechanics. Galileo died in 1642.
Galileo contributed greatly to the progress of science has long been recognized. The significance lies in the role of scientific discoveries such as the law of inertia, the invention of the telescope, the field of astronomical observation and hypothesis of Copernicus prove his genius. And more important is its role in the development of scientific methodology. Generally the natural philosophers basing his opinion on the thoughts of Aristotle and make investigations phenomena qualitatively and categorized. Instead, Galileo set and observe the phenomenon on a quantitative basis. Careful emphasis on quantitative calculation since it is the basis of science investigation in subsequent periods.
Galileo may have more responsibility than any person for scientific inquiry with empirical attitude. It was he, and not the other, who first emphasized the importance of show trials, he rejects the notion that the scientific issues can be decided along with the power, whether power is the name of the Church or the rules of Aristotle's argument. He also balked schemes rely on the use of complicated reasons, and instead rely on a trial basis is steady. Ingenious century scholars discuss rambling middle of what should happen and why something happened, but Galileo insisted on the importance of conducting experiments to ascertain what actually happened. Clear scientific view clearly not mystical, and in this connection he is even more modern than his successors, such as Newton.
Galileo, can be considered religious people. Regardless of the punishment meted out to him and his confession, he did not reject both religion and the church. That rejection is just trial magistrates church efforts to suppress science investigations. The next generation is very reasonable Gahleo admired as a symbol of the rebel against dogma and authoritarian rule that attempts to fetter the independence of thought. Its importance is more pronounced is the role it plays in terms of laying the foundations of modern scientific method.