1831-1879 James Clerk Maxwell
Famous British physicist James Clerk Maxwell is best known for the formulation of four statements that describe the basic laws of electrical and magnetic.
Both of these fields before Maxwell has been investigated for a long time and have been known to exist as a link between the two. However, despite the various laws of electricity and magnecity already discovered and contain truth in some aspects, before Maxwell, none of these laws which is a unified theory. In he had four legal instruments formulated briefly (but have high weights), Maxwell managed to describe precisely the behavior and mutual relations between the electric and magnetic fields. By doing so he changed the large number of phenomena into a single theory that can be used as handhold. Maxwell theory has become a fad in the previous century extensively in both the theory and the practice of science.
The most important value of, the new Maxwell's opinion is: a lot of the general equation that can occur in all circumstances. All the laws of electrical and magnetic preexisting opinion can be ascribed to Maxwell, as well as a large number of other laws, which was once a theory that is not known. From Maxwell's opinion can be shown how shakeness alternating electromagnetic field on a periodic basis is something that could happen. Motion back and forth like a hanger is called electromagnetic waves, which when once moved will continue to spread to outer space. From these opinions were able to show that the speed of electromagnetic waves that reach approximately 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per second. Maxwell knows that this is equal to the size of the speed of light. From this angle he correctly concluded that light itself consists of electromagnetic waves.
So, not only is the opinion of Maxwell basic laws of electricity and magnicity, but also at the same time is a basic law of optics. Indeed, all previous law known as the law of optics can be attributed to his opinion, too many facts and relationships with the things that were once unspeakable.
Light visible to the eye is not only kind that allows electromagnetic radiation. Opinion Maxwell showed that electromagnetic waves other, in contrast to visible light by the eye he had a wavelength and frequency, there may be. The theoretical conclusions are admirably reinforced by Heinrich Hertz, which is able to produce and meet the second wave appears to the eye was predicted by Maxwell. A few years later, Guglielmo Marconi demonstrated that the waves are not visible to the eye that can be used for communication without wires, so what is the name of the radio. Now, we use also for television, X-rays, gamma rays, infrared rays, ultraviolet rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation. Everything can be learned through the ideas of Maxwell.
Although the most prominent Maxwell fame lies in the tremendous contribution in the field of mind and electromagnetic optics, he also makes an important contribution to the world of science in other respects, including the theories of astronomy and thermodynamics (heat particulars of the investigation). One of particular interest is the kinetic theory of gases. Maxwell realized that not all gas molecules move at the same speed. Some are slow, some are fast, and some with incredible speed. Maxwell tried special formula shows the smallest molecules move (in a certain temperature) at a certain speed anyway. This formula is called the "spread of Maxwell," is the formula most widely used in scientific formulas, and contains an important meaning and benefits of each branch of physics.
Maxwell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1831 he developed so early: at the age of fifteen years he has been able to present a scientific paper work to the "Edinburgh Royal Society." He entered the University of Edinburgh and graduated from the University of Cambridge. Married, but childless. Maxwell is generally considered the biggest theoretician in the field of physics in the entire period between Newton and Einstein. Brilliant career ended too quickly because he passed away in 1879 from cancer attacks, not long after celebrating the birthday-48.