±300 BC Euclid
Not many people are fortunate to have a lasting fame as Euclid, Greek geometer great. Although during his lifetime such figures as Napoleon, Martin Luther, Alexander the Great, far more famous than Euclid but in the long run may surpass all the fame they called it.
Besides fame, almost no detailed information about the life of Euclid that could be known. For example, we know he has been active as a teacher in Alexandria, Egypt, around the year 300 BC, but when he was born and when he died really dark. In fact, we do not know in what continent and what town he was born. Although he wrote several books and left them still there, its place in history is mainly located on the great textbooknya geometry called The Elements.
The importance of the book The Elements does not lie in the personal statement formulas are flung. Almost all the theories contained in the book was never written one before, and also can be verified. Euclid contribution lies in the way the setting of the materials and overall issues in the formulation and preparation of the plan book. Here snagged, the most important, the selection of the arguments and the calculations, for example, about the possibility of drawing a straight line between two points. After that carefully and cautiously he set the arguments so easily understood by the people thereafter. When necessary, she provides instructions on how to split things unsolved and develop experiments to problems missed. It should be noted that the book The Elements apart, especially the development of the field of strict geometry, also in addition it contains the parts about following extensive algebraic summation theory.
The book The Elements is already the standard handbook of over 2000 years and there is no doubt the most successful textbook ever devised humans. So great that Euclid compiled his book from its shape alone is capable of removing all the contrived textbook ever before and who never ignored again. Originally written in Greek, then the book The Elements was translated into various languages. The first issue appeared in 1482, some 30 years before the invention of the printing press by Gutenberg. Since the invention of the printing machine and was issued in editions of thousands of diverse shades.
As a trainer tool logic of the human mind, the book The Elements is much more influential than all the treatises of Aristotle on logic. The book is a complete example about deductive structure and is a stunning fruit think of all the creations of the human brain.
It is fair to say that the book of Euclid is an important factor for the growth of modern science. Science is not just a collection of observations carefully and not just generalize too sharp and wise. The results are taken large modern science comes from a combination of empirical investigations work and experiments on the one hand, with careful analysis and conclusions which have a strong foundation on the other.
We're still wondering what the cause of science emerged in Europe and not in China, but it feels safe if we assume that it is not merely because a matter of coincidence. Indeed, the role of which is driven by brilliant people like Newton, Galileo and Copernicus has a very important meaning. But, of course there are the reasons why people appeared in Europe. It may well be the most prominent historical factors affecting what causes Europe in terms of science is Greek rationalism, along with the mathematical knowledge inherited by Greece to Europe. It should be noted that China --though centuries, the technology is far more advanced than Europe-have never had a mathematical structure that belongs to the theoretical as well as Europe. No one else Chinese mathematician who had a relationship with Euclid. Chinese people master good knowledge of practical geometry, but their knowledge of geometry was never defined in a schema that contains the conclusions.
For Europeans, the notion that there are some basic principles of physics that everything comes from him, it seems a natural thing because they have an example of Euclid that are behind them. In general, Europeans do not assume Euclidean geometry is just an abstract system, but they are convinced that the idea itself theory-- --and Euclid really is the reality.
Euclid influence on Sir Isaac Newton was very evident, since Newton wrote her most famous book The Principia in kegeometrian form, similar to the Elements. Various scientists are trying to identify with the way Euclid shows how all of their conclusions logically originated from the original assumptions. Nothing except what is done by mathematicians such as Russell, Whitehead and philosopher Spinoza.
Now, mathematicians already understand that the geometry of Euclid. is not the only system of geometry that is so fundamental and firm grip and that can be planned as well, they were advised that during the last 150 years many people who formulate the geometry is not a la Euclid. Actually, since Einstein's theory of relativity was accepted by, the scientists realized that Euclidean geometry is not always true in the real application of the horizon problem. In the proximity of surrounding "black hole" and the neutron star where gravity --example-- are in a high degree, Euclidean geometry does not give a thorough picture of the world, or do not show the exact translation of the space as a whole. However, these examples are rare, because in many ways the work of Euclid provides a likelihood estimates closer to reality. Recent advancement of human knowledge is not reduced either the result of the intellectual efforts of Euclid and of the importance of his position in the history.