384-322 BC Aristotle

classic philosophy
Almost undeniable, a philosopher and scientist Aristotle greatest in the ancient world. He pioneered the investigation of the particulars logic, enrich almost every branch of philosophy and untold magnitude contribute to science. 

Many of Aristotle's ideas are outdated now. But the most important of what he did to Aristotle is a rational approach that always underlie his work. Reflected in the writings of Aristotle attitude that every aspect of human life or society is always open to the object of thought and analysis. Opinion of Aristotle, the universe is not completely controlled by chance, by magic, by the desire of the will of god terjajaki not unexpected, but the behavior of the universe is subject to rational laws. This belief according to Aristotle is necessary for humans to question every aspect of the natural world in a systematic and we should utilize both empirical observation and logical reasons before making a decision. The series of these attitudes, who contrary to tradition, superstition and misticisme-- have profound influence of European civilization. 

Aristotle was born in Stagira, Macedonia, 384 BC. His father was a famous physicist. At the age of seventeen Aristotle went to Athens studied at Plato's Academy. He lived there for twenty years until Plato died shortly. From her father, Aristotle may get a boost interest in biology and "practical knowledge". Under the tutelage of Plato he instilled an interest in philosophical speculation. 

In 342 BC Aristotle returned to Macedonia, being a teacher of a child king thirteen years later in the famous history of Alexander the Great. Aristotle educate the young Alexander in a few years. In the year 335 BC, after Alexander ascended the throne of the kingdom, Aristotle returned to Athens and there opened his own school, the Lyceum. He was in Athens for twelve years, a period that coincided with the military conquest of Alexander's career. Alexander did not ask for advice to his former teacher, but he was kind enough to provide funds for Aristotle to conduct investigations. Maybe this is the first example in history of a scientist receives a large amount of funds from the government for the purposes of the investigation and it is also the last one in the following centuries. 

Even so, allied with Alexander containing various hazards. Aristotle rejects in principle the way of dictatorship and when the conqueror Alexander Alexander to death on charges menghianat cousin Aristotle, Alexander had also killed Aristotle thought. On the one hand, Aristotle too democratic in the eyes of Alexander, he also has a close relationship with Alexander and trusted by the people of Athens. When Alexander died in 323 BC anti-Macedonian faction in power in Athens, and Aristotle was indicted insolent to the gods. Aristotle, Socrates reminded of the fate of the previous 76 years, fled the city, saying he was not going to be given a second chance to the people of Athens to sin against the philosophers. Aristotle died in exile a few months later in the year 322 BC at the age of sixty-two years. 

The results of the work of Aristotle pure staggering amount. Forty-seven of his work remains. Ancient records list no less than one hundred and seventy-book creations. In fact, not just the large number of titles are awesome, but broad power range musings material civilization and also no less-less great. Scientific work is truly encyclopedic knowledge for its time. Aristotle wrote about astronomy, zoology, Embryology, geography, geology, physics, anatomy, physiology, and almost every time his work was known in ancient Greece. Scientific work, is, in part, a collection of knowledge gained from paid special assistants to collect data for her, while some as a result of a series of observations alone. 

To become an expert in the most topnotch each branch of the impossibility of magic and no duplicates afterwards someone in the future. But what has been achieved by Aristotle even more than that. He was an original philosopher, he was a major contributor in every important field of speculative philosophy, he wrote on ethics and metaphysics, psychology, economics, theology, politics, rhetoric, beauty, education, poetry, customs retarded people and the constitution of Athens. One project is a collection of various domestic investigations were used for comparative studies. 

Maybe once, the most important of the many results of his work is his study of the theory of logic, and Aristotle regarded as the founder of this important branch of philosophy. This is actually due to the logical nature of Aristotle's way of thinking that enables them to dedicate so many areas of science. He had the talent set way of thinking, formulating rules and the types which then became the basis of thinking in many fields of science. Aristotle never kejeblos into the mystical swamps or extreme. Aristotle always insist to express their opinions practical. Of course, the man his name, he also made ​​a mistake. However, once it's amazing how few mistakes he makes in the vast encyclopedia. 

Aristotle's influence on Western thinking behind the really deep. In ancient and medieval times, his work was translated into Latin languages​​, Arabic, Italian, French, Hebrew, German and English. Greek writers who came later, as did the Byzantine philosophers studied and put his very admiration. It should be also noted, his mind has an impact on the Islamic philosophers and for centuries his writings dominated Western thinking. Ibn Rushd (Averroes), possibly the most prominent Arab philosophers, trying to formulate a synthesis between Islamic theology with Aristotelian rationalism. Maimomides, the most prominent Jewish thinkers made ​​it to the middle of the century with the synthesis of Judaism. However, the most brilliant work of such deeds is his Summa Theologia Christian scholar St. Thomas Aquinas. Outside of this list is still very much a middle-century intellectuals who are affected by it as Aristotle thought. 

Admiration for Aristotle became so jumped in the middle of the century when the state has led to idolatry. In those circumstances the writings of Aristotle is more a sort of telling a pack of intellect questioned further problems rather than some sort of torch lights the way. Aristotle is fond of researching and thinking about her particulars less unmistakeable blindly agree with the praise of the next generation of the writings. 

Some ideas seem reactionary Aristotle measured with glasses now. For example, he supported slavery as it deems consistent with the line of the natural law. And he believes modesty dignity of women than men. Both of these ideas, of course --reflect prevailing view at that time. However, no less than the amount of fruit that astoundingly modern mind Aristotle, for example, the sentence, "Poverty is the father of revolution and crime," and the phrase "Anyone who has pondered deeply in the art of governing mankind must believe that the fate of empires depends on the education thing children young. "(Of course, at that time no school as we know it today). 

In recent centuries, Aristotle's influence and reputation had declined not absurdly tall. However, I think the effect is so absorbing and lasted so long that I can not regret placing it higher than the level of the order as it is today. The rate is primarily due to the sequence now very important that preceded the thirteen men in the order.