Confucianisme, (551 - 479 BC) Kong Hu Chu
No doubt, Kong Hu Cu great Chinese philosopher. And no doubt, he was the first developer to integrate systems minds and beliefs of most basic Chinese. Concerning the morality of a person's philosophy and conception of a government on ways to serve the people and commanded it through exemplary behavior has absorbed so blood flesh and cultural life of the Chinese people for more than two thousand years. More than that, it also affects the population settled some other world.
Born around the year 551 BC in the small town of Lu, now entered the province of Shantung in northeastern mainland China. In young widowed father, making life miserable on her mother's side. When he became an adult departed servants petty tapisesudah every few years he decided passable dislodged alone. Throughout the next sixteen Kong Hu-Cu to be a teacher, little by little for influence and philosophy fad followers. Stepping on the age of fifty years of his star began to shine because he can high position in the city government of Lu.
The good fortune apparently not always friendly for people who are jealous with this act and the act was dragged to court so that not only managed to remove him from office chairs but also make him leave town. No less than thirteen years of Hu-Cu Kong traveled to where the feet go, so teachers around, had just returned home from five years before his death in 479 BC.
Kong Hu-Cu is often regarded as the founder of a religion; This assumption of course missed. He rarely associate with the divine teachings, rejecting talk of the netherworld, and expressly deny any talk related matters metaflsika. He -not more and no less-a secular philosopher, just dealing with moral issues as well as political and personal moral behavior.
There are two very important values, words Hu-Cu Kong, namely "Yen" and "Li:" "Yen" is often translated with the word "Love," but they are more subject to mean "The hospitality in a relationship with someone." "Li" is described as a combination of behavioral, worship, customs, manners and courtesy.
Ancestor worship, the basic bin basically trust the Chinese even before the birth of Kong Hu Cu, is confirmed again emphasizing loyalty to the family and respect for the elderly. Teachings Kong Hu-Cu also underlines the importance of a wife necessity respectful and obedient to her husband and a similar necessity of a citizen to his government. This is somewhat different from Chinese folk tales that always oppose every form of tyranny. Kong Hu-Cu sure, there was no other country to serve the interests of the people, not inverted. Not lose jemunya Kong Hu-Cu stressed that rulers should govern based firstly give exemplary moralist rather than passing play hard and kemplang. And one of the few legal doctrine similar to the "Golden Rule" of her Christians that read "What you do not like others to do to you, do not do it."
The main view of the subject Kong Hu-Cu is essentially extremely conservative. He thought, already past the golden era, and he appealed to both the ruler and the people to return home, adhering to the moral genah size, do not digress. The fact that there is not an easy matter at hand. Desire Kong Hu-Cu that govern how not to play snapped, but through the show is not a good role model so smoothly at the beginning of his time. Therefore, Kong Hu-Cu is closer to a reformer, an innovator rather than what was really at her dreams.
Kong Hu-Cu lived in Chou Dynasty, the menyuburnya intellectual life in China, while the rulers of the time ignored the advice-petuahnya altogether. Only after he wafatlah teachings spread to all corners of China.
Coincidence with the advent of Ch'in dynasty in 221 BC, had a very bleak future. Emperor Shih Huang Ti, the first emperor of the Ch'ing dynasty unanimously determined to root out the adherents of Kong Hu Cu and cut off contact link past. Issuance of orders daily squeezing creamed teachings Kong Hu-Cu and move both rearview and professional thugs and vandals to do a massive search, seize all books containing the teachings Kong Hu Cu and plunged into the campfire until destroyed to ashes. Depravity plan is apparently not too susceptible. When approaching a collapse of the Ch'ing dynasty, the adherents of Kong Hu Cu resurgent embers to rekindle the spirit and doctrine of Kong Hu Cu. In the next dynasty (Han dynasty in 206 BC - 220 AD). Confucianism became the official philosophy of the Chinese state.
Starting from the Han dynasty, Chinese emperors level by level to develop a system of selection for those who want to become civil servants with the exams so that the servants do the haphazard but have good quality standards and moral skills. Over time more and more directed and weighted selection: eye exams include the basic philosophy of Kong Hu Cu. Because the country is so pegawal ladder to prosperity keterangkatan material and social status, please understand if among enthusiasts fierce battles fought for space. The next result, air-fronted generations of Chinese intellectuals frontman massive amounts pursue until dizziness treasures of classical writings Khong Hu Cu. And, for centuries all over the Chinese civil servants consists of the gaze rests on a philosophy of Kong Hu Cu. This system (with only a slight distraction) lasted for almost two thousand years, beginning in 100 BC to 1900 AD
However, Confucianism is not only the Chinese government's official philosophy, but also accepted and internalized by most of the Chinese people, influential down to the basics of their hearts, be guided towards thinking for a period of more than two thousand years.
There are several reasons why Confucianism has so great influence on the Chinese people. First, honesty and innocence Kong Hu-Cu can not be doubted. Secondly, he is a moderate and exceedingly practical and do not ask a lot of things that are not manageable to handle people. If Kong Hu-Cu wanted someone so respected, that people should not bother to be a saint in advance. In this case, as in the case of other teachings, he reflects and simultaneously translate the practical character of the Chinese people. This aspect of the possibility that a factor terpokok success teachings Kong Hu Cu. Kong Hu-Cu is not asking exceedingly much. For example, he does not ask the Chinese exchange length fundamental beliefs. In fact the opposite, Kong Hu Cu support come with clean clear language so that they do not need to be edged. Apparently, no one philosopher anywhere in the world that is so close to touching in fundamental views with residents as well as the Kong Hu Cu.
Confucianism which emphasizes a series of obligations aimed at individuals rather than accentuate their rights -rasanya stodgy and less attractive to the size of the Western world. As a philosophy of effective state looks amazing. Measured in terms of the ability to maintain domestic harmony and well-being of China in a period of no less than two thousand years, it is clear compares favorably with the best forms of government in the world.
The idea of Kong Hu Cu philosophy rooted in Chinese culture, it is not much effect outside the region of East Asia. In Korea and Japan, and this influence is apparent due to the two countries was strongly influenced by Chinese culture.
Currently in a state Guram Confucianism in China. The problem is, the Communist government bend over backwards in order to link the minds of the population with the past is lost altogether. With persistent and systematic Confucianism battered a depleted so that it is probable that the time is not so far away from Earth Chinese Confucianism. But as in the past, so the taproot Confilcianisme earth plunged in China, is not impossible-whether one hundred or one hundred fifty lahun to come - some Chinese philosopher able to marry the two big ideas: Confucianism and teachings of Mao Tse-Tung.