PLATO, 427 BC-347 BC
PLATO, 427 BC-347 BC
The ancient Greek philosopher Plato became the forerunner of the Western political philosophers and once the master of ethics and metaphysics their thoughts. Its opinions in this field has been read widely over 2300 years. Plato like a founding father for Western thinkers,
Plato was born of the family of the famous Athens circa 427 BC. In adolescence he became acquainted with the famous philosopher Socrates who became a teacher and best friend. The year 399 BC, when Socrates seventy years old, he was dragged to court with baseless accusations do jerk and deprave young generation Athens. Socrates was condemned, sentenced to death. Execution of Socrates - Plato called "the wisest, most honest, best of all human beings that I have ever known" - makes Plato hate to democratic governance.
Shortly after the death of Socrates, Plato left Athens and for ten-twelve years wandering where feet carry.
Around the year 387 BC he returned to Athens, establishing universities there, an academy which runs more than 900 years. Plato spent the rest of his life that forty years in Athens, teaches and writes about philosophy. Famous pupil, Aristotle, who became pupil academy at the age of seventeen, while Plato's time was already treading the age of sixty years. Plato closed eye at the age of seventy.
Plato wrote no less than thirty-six books, mostly concerning the political and ethical issues aside metaphysics and theology. Of course, impossible to summarize the contents of all the books in just a few sentences. But, at the risk of simplifying thoughts, I want to try also summarize the main points politiknya.yang ideas presented in the famous book, Republic, which represents the thoughts of the people who thinks the ideal form.
The best form of a government, Plato suggested, is held by the government of the aristocracy. What is meant here instead aristocrat aristocrat who measured dose of quality, which is the government that is driven by the son of the best and wisest in the country. These people should be chosen not through sound tax residents but through the process of collective decision. People who have become members of the ruling or the so-called "guardian" should add that equal those solely on the basis of quality.
Plato believed that for everyone, whether he is male or female, must be provided the opportunity showed his skills as a member of "guardian". Plato was the first major philosopher, and for a long time in fact it was just her, which proposes equality of opportunity regardless of gender. To prove the equality provision of chance, Plato suggested that the growth and education of children is managed by the state. Children must first acquire a thorough physical exercise, but in terms of music, math and other academic disciplines should not be ignored. At some stage, extensive tests have to be held. They are less developed should be given the opportunity to participate and engage in economic activities, while those who developed should continue and receive training. The addition of this education must include not only the usual academic subjects, but also steeped in the philosophy of Plato referred to examine the metaphysical doctrine of the ideal form of ideology.
At the age of thirty-five years, these people who had been really convincing able to demonstrate mastery in the field of basic theories, must undergo additional training again for fifteen years, which must include working for practical experience. Only those who are able to demonstrate that they can realize the real work in the form of books that are studied can be classified into "guardian class." Moreover, only those who could clearly. shows that the main interest is to serve the interests of society that can be accepted into. "guardian class."
Membership guardian does not in itself attract public attention. Therefore, so the guardian is not much to get money. They are only allowed to have a limited amount of personal property and should not have any land for private homes. They receive a certain salary and fixed (it was in the amount that is not how), and not allowed to have gold or silver. Members are not allowed to have a family guardian separate place, they have to eat at the same time, have the pair together. Rewards for-frontman frontman philosophers instead of wealth, but satisfaction in serving the public interest. That sum an ideal republic, according to Plato.
Republic reads widely for centuries. But it should be noted, the political system which is recommended in it has never actually practiced as a model for any government. During the period between the time of Plato until now, European countries generally adopts a kingdom. In recent centuries some countries adopt a democratic form of government. There are also embracing system of military rule, or under tyrannical demagogue such as Hitler and Mussolini. None of these governments have a similarity with Plato's ideal republic. Plato's theory has never been a fad any political party, or be the basis of political movements such as occurs in the teachings of Karl Marx, whether we can thus conclude that the work of Plato, although discussed with respect, in fact completely excluded people in practice? I think not.
True, none of the civilian government in Europe propped on Plato models directly. However, there are amazing similarities between the position of the Catholic church in the middle of the century Europe "guardian class" Plato. Medieval Catholic Church consists of the elite who defend themselves so as not to wither and marginalized, whose members receive formal philosophical exercises. In principle, all men, regardless of where the origin may have been entered clergy (though not for women). Also, in principle, the pastor did not have family and is directed solely so that they focus on their own group, rather than lust majesty praised.
The role of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union is also nothing to compare it with the "guardian class" Plato he had the ideal republic. Here, too, we find that all of the elite group trained with the official philosophy.
Plato also affect the structure of the US government. Many members of the American constitutional convention to know and be familiar with the political ideas of Plato. He meant, of course, that the Constitution of the United States opened the possibility of digging and affect the will of the people. And it is also desirable as a means of selecting the wisest and kindest to govern the country.
Difficulties in determining the significance of the influence of Plato all time - despite extensive and spread - is complicated and is not directly exposed. In addition to his political theory, the discussion in the field of ethics and metaphysics has influenced many philosophers who came later. If Plato placed at slightly lower than Aristotle in the list today, it is mainly because Aristotle was not only a philosopher but also an important scientist. In contrast, higher order placement Plato than thinkers like John Locke, Thomas Jefferson and Voltaire, why because the writings political affairs affecting the world only within the past two or three centuries, while Plato has a range of more than twenty-three centuries.